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Macau History

Archaeological discovery, way in Macao surround island excavated a lot of ancient painted pottery, jade article, stone axe, stone implement among the dark sand dune of sand, etc. have already been proved it is the remains of history and culture of 4,000-5,000 years, it is verified at the same time cultural system in the unearthed similar, it means in the Neolithic Age, the ancestor of Chinese nation has already lived in Macao area. Later, the Shang ,spring and autumn of our country and various remains of the times of the Warring States have been excavated in Macao too; But these are only the textual criticism of the remains of historical relics. In the 3rd century B.C., since first unified Qin Dynasty in China, Macao put FanYu county once of the South China Sea prefecture and administered. Probably on later stage of the 15th century, the security of fishing in order to go to sea of Chinese fisherman of horboring in Macao, has built the sea God, the princess' "princess' temple of day" on day of offering sacrifice, i.e. as "mother pavilion temple" that Macao symbolize, Portugal gentle (Macau) the transliteration of "mother pavilion". According to the records of history records, Jianyan 22 years (A.D. 1152 ) in the Southern Song Dynasty, Song GaoZong sets up Fragrant Hills county, at this moment, Macao is under the jurisdiction of Fragrant Hills county, is called at that time Macao, moat mirror Macao of Fragrant Hills, and Chinese horbors in Macao, it should be in the last years of the Southern Song Dynasty, hundreds of thousands main forces of the imperial court beat a precipitate retreat herein in the Southern Song Dynasty, the army and the people horbor herein in the Southern Song Dynasty, appeared in the peninsula of Macao at the same time to call the tiny temple housing the village god of very beginning of sand pear of "ancient society of the good fortune forever". (1465-1487 year) Chenghua year in Ming Dynasty, lived in Macao resident (from Fujian and Guangdong) lie in pavilion of mother pavilion build mother's pavilion temple together, the name at that time called the Haijue temple. In middle period of the 16th century, with the expansion of the European colonialism "navigation great discovery", Portuguese reach the southeast region following the line of the sea of China. 1553 year, Portuguese as "airing and shining the soaked cargo excuse borrowing", through bribed to officers of Ming Dynasty, get permission to live in the peninsula of Macao temporarily. Between several years, Portugal people gather to complete village, set up government official by theirselves, set up the place where their so-called stronghold initially of the Far East. Occupy time with entering long and long and trade is prosperous, it is arrogant and imperious to occupy the people of Portugal of Macao day by day. Guangdong government official discussed to expel the method of uninvited guest, besides paying the ship tax of trader to ship of Portuguese, give Guangdong government official of bribe 25 kilograms of silver every year, in order to consolidate its position in Macao. 1572 year, Portugal trader in present 25 silver as usual, have other Chinese present government official, Portugal trader translate had to say that to pay "land rent silver" of Chinese Government, accept bribes government official declares also that will submit these "land rent silver" to the national treasury. From then on, the bribery of Portugal trader has been turned into the land rent. In 1749, the Qing Government issued China and in charge of managing 12 rules of Macao, places oneself in the agenda pavilion of Macao with the gentle stone of China and Portugal. Hereafter, this decree was carried out for 100 years. The people of Portugal pay the land rent to Chinese Government, indicates the people of Portugal admit Macao is the territory of China. After the Opium War (1840-1842), China and Britain sign "the treaty of Nanjing", Chinese Qing Government cedes Hong Kong to give to Britain, occupy Macao Portuguese people submissive with normality, send representative with Qing Dynasty imperial Jiying negotiate, demand to exempt silver of 25 kilograms of land rent of every year, and Portuguese soldier's occupy whole peninsula of Macao on garrison duty. In 1845, Portuguese queen Maria announced Macao as the free port without authorization in two generations, allow all foreign merchant ship come on free trade of Macao. In 1851 years and 1864 years, Portugal occupied two islands of the water hole son and way ring respectively. 1887 years (i.e. Guangxu 13 years), the Qing Government is forced to sign China and Portugal "friendly treaty of amity & commerce", agree Portugal "stays and manages Macao forever". After the foundation of the People's Republic of China, People's Central Government announced clearly in 1949, abolish the past all foreign big powers force the unequal treaty on Chinese people. Leave over the undecided problem to some history including question of Macao, Chinese Government advocate, when the condition is ripe, resolve through negotiation peacefully, maintain the statusquo when being unresolved. February of 1979, China and Portugal establish diplomatic relations, reach the agreement on question of Macao: Macao is the territory of China, managed by Portugal at present; The question of Macao is a historical legacy, when being appropriate, China and Portugal solve through friendly negotiation. In April of 1987, Chinese and Portugal governments signed the Sino-Portugal joint statement, Macso is the territory of China declare together, Chinese Government resumes the exercise of sovereignty over Macao from December 20, 1999.

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